Harmonious Pluralism In Plurality
Penulis : Dian Eka Lestari, M.Pd.I*
We know that creating a harmonious society together is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand, there are a lot of challenges. Starting from there are many differences developed in the community itself, such as differences in ethnicity, race, religion, culture. Until aversion to such parties in creating a harmonious environment. We remember the discrimination that happens to our Muslim brothers in Myanmar. They have no right to citizenship, the right to education and even health. The same thing happened to the Christian community living in Georgia, a country that lies on the border of Europe and Asia. A gang of attackers with sticks that is implanted by nails and iron bars attacked with violent men, women, and children who are innocent, and so as the elderly and people with disabilities. Make the victim battered, tearing the face, scalp and tore them, really inhuman. It’s not about difference, but it is the reluctance of one of the parties to create harmony it even about differences in belief that all have rights to adopt a religion that they believe and they have any rights to exercise of religious ritual while not disturbing others.
I am here might be raise a lot about the issue among religious pluralism that has long been a common desire in every country but its realization is still very difficult to realize. What is pluralism? Pluralism and plurality are two themes that are often discussed interchangeably without any explanation as to whether these two words have the same meaning or different. Sometimes, pluralism and a plurality have the same meaning, that is a state that is plural, the plural or more than one. Pluralism is not actually a plural state, is not just a recognition that the heterogeneity that exists in reality. Religious pluralism is an attitude recognize, appreciate, respect, preserve and even develop or enrich the circumstances plurality. In the context of religious pluralism refers to the theory or attitude that all religions, although with a different way, leading to the same goal, the Absolute, the Ultimate, which is God. (Umi Sumbulah, 2006: 56).
Speak about religious pluralism, may sometimes arise in our minds, why does God actually created various religions if He could create only one true religion so many tragedies would not happen because of religious differences that exist. This is our prejudices as a creature with limitations to the Supreme Infinite. Sohail H. Hasmi quoting verses of the Qur’an which means: “O mankind, actually We created you from a male and a female and made you nations and tribes, that ye may know one another” (QS . 49: 13). (Sohail H. Hasmi, 2005: 157).
Next is the Qur’an Surah Al-Maidah which means: “To every people among you, we provide the rules and the way the light (syirbatan wa minhajan), assuming you made Allah willed one nation alone, but God is testing you to gift to you, then compete each other in virtuous (fastabiqu al khoyrat), only to Allah return you all (ila Allahi marji’ukum jami’a) then informed of what you used to differ. (QS. Al -Maidah: 48).
From these verses we can know that God actually make a difference precisely so that we know each other and respect each other. Basically, as the theory expressed Umi Sumbulah above, pluralism is not just admit that there are differences that develop in certain communities, but to actively participate in the difference, respect and even helped others regardless of their religion, because actually the culmination of all religion is the same, namely love.
Pluralism must be differentiated with cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitanism points to a reality in which diverse religions, races and nations live side by side in one location. Take for example the city of New York. This city is a cosmopolitan city. In this city there are Jews, Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, even those with no religion whatever. As if the entire population of the world are in this city. But this positive interaction among the citizen, especially in the field of religion is very minimal, if any. (Alwi Shihab, 1999: 41-44). So that sense of cool, no matter even though we recognize the difference, was not part of the pluralism that is expected to be developed in the community.
Sense-it is not possible to create a harmonious society in without pluralism in it. Harmonious society and pluralism like two sides of a coin that could not be separated. So if we want to create a harmonious society, one primary key is fostering a sense of community pluralism in advance.
Brian Fay (1996) in addressing the social phenomenon using an approach called with a multicultural approach. This approach attempts to reconcile the differences in the views of the social sciences in a more profound, pluralistic, inclusive, open-plan and subjectivism.
In the philosophy of the social sciences there is a dualistic pattern dominates. The pattern is related to the question: “Is one option or the other option -and then one of them is considered the right choice?” Fay tried to avoid dualism that damage, for example: self vs. other people; subjetivisme vs. objectivism; atomism vs. holism; our culture vs. culture; insiders vs. outsider; similarity vs. difference and many more. Fay describes “understand others” and “criticize others”. Between understand and criticize are two different things. Social sciences related to the effort to understand others instead of judging others.
Presumably what Fay presented above has given us some overview of how to create a harmonious society in plurality. Be aware that plurality is the design of God that He made not to divide but rather to all of us to understand each other in the difference itself.
Creating a harmonious society does not have to equate all the difference is it? Nor to make the vision and mission of every individual in it, but rather to accept that differences do exist, and it must be realized by each individual in society itself. We could take the philosophy of the rainbow. What if rainbow just orange, or green color alone, certainly not beautiful isn’t it? As well as the strings of a guitar, what if plucked guitar strings simultaneously? Is the rhythm will be as beautiful as if they were plucked alternately according melody created? Presumably the two things that we can make the guidelines that different is beautiful. Accepting differences is not easy, but not impossible. With quotes of all parties involved want to contribute in creating peace for all.